CONFIGURE NETWORK INTERFACES IN KALI LINUX

USING THE GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE TO CONFIGURE NETWORK INTERFACES

Configuring the network cards, also called network adapters, in Linux was once a process that could only be completed through the command line. This has changed in recent years, and Kali Linux is no different in fact Kali
Linux has a robust graphical user interface (GUI) that allows many of the common settings to be configured through the use of simple dialog boxes. The network configurations dialog box is easily accessible by selecting Applications in the top right of the user interface (Figure 1) and then selecting System Tools, Preferences, and Network Connections.

By clicking network connections, the network connections dialog box will be displayed, the wired tab is selected by default (Figure 2). Alternatively, right-click on the two computers on the top right of the screen, as in Figure 3, and selecting edit connections will result in accessing the same dialog box. In most cases, computers will have only one network card that will need to be configured, in cases where multiple NICs are installed, ensure you are configuring the correct

FIGURE 1 Graphical network configuration.
FIGURE 2 Graphical wired network configuration

FIGURE 3 Alternate graphical wired network configuration.

 

 

 

 

card. This example will configure Wired connection 1, a name that can be changed if you like to something more meaningful, the only physical network card in the computer. The configuration dialog box is displayed after selecting the connection to be modified and click the Edit button. This will bring up the Editing box for the connection, with the Wired tab selected by default. This tab displays the devices media access control (MAC) address, an address that is designed to remain the same for the life of the device, see the note on MAC addresses for more information on MAC addresses. The devices identifier are also displayed in parenthesis after the MAC address. In this case, the device identifier is eth0, where eth is short for Ethernet and 0 is the first card in the computer. The numbering sequence for network cards starts at 0 and not 1 so the second card in the computer would be eth1.tab.

Wired Ethernet configurations can be made by selecting the 802.1x Security tab, the IPv4 Settings, or the IPv6 Settings tab. This book will focus on configuring the IP version 4 (IPv4) settings so that tab will be selected. Once
selected the configurations for the computers IP address (192.168.1.66), Subnet Mask or Netmask (255.255.255.0), Gateway (192.168.1.1), and DNS servers (192.168.1.1). Multiple DNS servers can be used by separating each
with a comma. The configuration can be saved and made active by selecting the Save button.

USING THE COMMAND LINE TO CONFIGURE NETWORK INTERFACES

Terminal window. There is a range of instances in penetration testing in which the control line is going to be the sole alternative for making setup changes. These changes need to be created as a user with increased permissions
working with the main account is a fantastic means to produce these modifications on a live supply and creating them utilizing the SDO control is an alternative for installments of Kali Linux. After permissions are raised, the system card may be configured.
Assessing the status of their computers system cards and the standing of each card has been completed with the next command.
ifconfig -a
This will show the current configuration of network cards onto the pc. In Figure 4, two community addresses are exhibited, eth0 the very first Ethernet card along with lo that the loopback or inner port. The preferences for this
The adapter was put together with the graphics interface. Transforming these is easy with the command prompt.

Starting and Stopping the Interface

The port could be initiated with all the up alternative or ceased using the downward button of the ifconfig command after defining the port to be started or stopped. The next command will discontinue the primary Ethernet adapter.

using the graphical user interface
FIGURE 4 Viewing network configuration status through the command line.

ifconfig eth0 down
The following command would start the first Ethernet adapter.
ifconfig eth0 up
The IP address of this adapter can be changed from 192.168.1.66, its current configuration, to 192.168.1.22 by using the following command.
ifconfig eth0 192.168.1.22
The command line can be used to change the network mask as well by using the following command. This will set the IP address to 192.168.1.22 and set the subnet mask to 255.255.0.0.
ifconfig eth0 192.168.1.22 netmask 255.255.255.0
Full configuration of the network card at the command line does require a bit more work than using the graphical user interface as the configuration settings are not all stored in the same location. The default gateway is added or changed, in this case to 192.168.1.2, with the following command.
route add default gw 192.168.1.2
The name server (or DNS) settings are changed by modifying the resolv.conf file in the /etc directory. This can be changed by editing the file with your favorite editor or simply using the following command at the command
prompt.
echo nameserver 4.4.4.4 . /etc/resolv.conf
The above command will remove the existing nameserver and replace it with  4.4.4.4. To add additional nameservers, the following command will append new nameserver addresses adding to those already listed in resolv.conf.
When the computer performs a name lookup, it will check the first three nameservers in the order they are listed.
echo nameserver 8.8.8.8 .. /etc/resolv.conf

DHCP from the Command Prompt

This way the DHCP server will supply all of the settings necessary for the card. This can be convenient for most end users But is not optimal when running penetration tests since the system has been configured is logged from the DHCP server’s database. Use these commands to disable automated DHCP configuration when conducting penetration tests. This case utilizes the superior editor, but additional text editors can be used.
nano /etc/networking/interfaces
#add the following lines##
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static
address {IP_Address}
netmask {netmask}
gateway {Gateway_IP_Address}
Save the text file and exit to complete the modification. It may be necessary to take down and bring back up the Ethernet interfaces to enable this configuration.
To configure the first network card simply enter the following command at the command prompt.
dhclient eth0
This will automatically configure the network card using the settings provided by the DHCP server.

CONFIGURE NETWORK INTERFACES IN KALI LINUX graphical user interface to configure using the graphical user interface

, How to Reach Bareilly

THE BASICS OF NETWORKING IN KALI LINUX

USING THE GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE TO CONFIGURE NETWORK INTERFACES USING THE GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE TO CONFIGURE NETWORK INTERFACES USING THE GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE TO CONFIGURE NETWORK INTERFACES

THE BASICS OF NETWORKING IN KALI LINUX

THE BASICS OF NETWORKING IN KALI LINUX

Networking can be thought of as a series of electronic roads between computers. These roads can be physical, most commonly copper category 5 or 6 (CAT 5 or CAT 6) cables or fiber optic cables. Wireless networking uses spe-
cial radio transmitters and receivers to conduct the same basic tasks as physical networks. A wired network interface card (NIC) is illustrated in Figure 1, and a wireless module is illustrated in Figure 2.

FIGURE 1 Network Interface Card. THE BASICS OF NETWORKING IN KALI LINUX
FIGURE 1
Network Interface Card.
THE BASICS OF NETWORKING IN KALI LINUX
FIGURE 2
Wireless network expansion card

 

 

Regardless of the medium, physical or wireless networking has the samebasic components. First there are two or more devices that will be communicating, for example Adams’s computer will be communicating with Bill’s
computer. To do this they will need the correct communications equipment operating on the correct medium. For this example, Adam will be connecting to the same physical CAT5-based network that Bill is connected to; however,
if the settings are correct Bill could be using a wireless network card and Adam could be using a wired network card as long as the protocols and settings for both are correct. For this to work correctly both Adam and Bill would need to be connecting to the same network segment using a device like a wireless router that would be connecting the different physical media types, wired and wireless.
There are a number of components that make up a modern network and fully explaining networking is far beyond the scope of this book; however, the small network segment that will be explained will be sufficient to
describe how to configure a network card. This small network is only two computers that are being used by Adam and Bill, a wired router connected to a cable modem and the cables that connect everything together (all CAT5 in
this example). The router has an inside Internet protocol (IP) address of 192.168.1.1, which is quite common for small office home office (SOHO) and home networks default configuration. This small router connects to the
Internet through its external connection, using an IP address assigned by the Internet Service Provider that will enable Adam and Bill to surf the web once they correctly configure their network cards. In this example, the router also provides dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP), basic firewall functions, and domain name service (DNS), each of these will be discussed in more detail later. This network is illustrated in Figure 3 and will be the
base network used in all of the following chapters.

Private Addressing

The internal interface (or network card) for the router has an IP address of 192.168.1.1, this is what is called a private address as it can’t be used on the Internet. It is fine for the internal network represented by the gray box in Figure 3 as are all of the addresses issued by DHCP, for example the IP address issued to Adam and Bill’s computers. Table 1 lists the common private IP addresses that can be used for internal or private networks, but can’t be used on the Internet.
To access the Internet, the router does a bit of magic called network address translation (NAT) that converts the IP addresses used by Adam and Bill to addresses that can be used on the Internet. This is normally the address that
is issued to the router by the cable Internet provider and will be assigned to the external interface (another network card). If a user was to try and use these addresses on the Internet, without a NATing router, the communication
would fail as Internet routers and other devices reject these private IP addresses.

THE BASICS OF NETWORKING IN KALI LINUX
FIGURE 3
Example small network segment.

Default Gateway

The router separates these two networks, internal and external, and provides some basic security functions, like a rudimentary firewall. Additionally, Moreover, the router provides a method from their personal network into the public community, nor-mally the world wide web. This speech, known as the default gateway, which is used later after configuring the system cards to your consumer’s 2 computers. A fantastic method to picture the default gateway would be to see it as the only road from a little city. Anyone desiring to leave town would have to understand where this street is. On a network computers (through the network card) need to know where the way out of the local network is, this is the default gateway.

Name Server

Computers talk to each other in numbers, while people are much better at communicating with words and phrases. For communication to function correctly, networks normally make use of name server or domain name service
(DNS). This book will cover DNS in greater detail later, so only a high-level overview of DNS will be discussed in this chapter. Basically, the name server translates human friendly names (like www.freelinuxbox.org) to an IP address that computers and networking components are better at working with. The DNS, synonymous with name server, provides translation between human friendly and computer friendly addresses. For example, when a computer wants to communicate with another computer, a web server for example, it must first translate the human readable address to a computer friendly address that can be used to route the message. The person would type www.freelinuxbox.org.com in their favorite browser, and the computer would forward this address for resolution to a DNS machine. The DNS would reply with the machine hosting the web pages IP address (69.163.177.2). The user’s computer would then use this IP address to communicate with the Syngress web server and the user could interact with the Syngress web page. Without this service, humans would be required to memorize every website’s unique IP Address. This would mean people would have to remember 69.163.177.2 not syngressc.com. Manual configuration of a network card requires the identification of a DNS or name server.

DHCP

For pure network magic nothing beats DHCP. Having a computer setup for automatic setup of DHCP, all of the consumer must do is link to a functioning system cable and proceed to work. This can be done while the computer starts communication throughout the system searching to get a DHCP server, simply by sending a broadcast request searching for a DHCP server. The machine responds to the customer and assigns networking settings to the computer. Including an IP address to your computer (well actually only the system card but that’s somewhat from the weeds because of this reason ), the default gateway, name serveror title servers, along with the default subnet mask. Typically, this really is a fantastic approach to configure your own network card however if you’re running a penetration test, using DHCP to configure the network announces to everyone that you’re going into the system, generally not a great thing.

Standard Subnetting

Subnetting is a subject that may confuse a great deal of folks, therefore for the sake of the article for subnetting will simply be clarified as the best way to configure networks at the ideal method to conserve IP addresses. This is carried out by employing a mask which can filter out a number of the computer IP address permitting the networks should be discovered. When employing the mask, regions of the speech are completed and many others stay to enable the computers to the system to be aware of the system they’re on. Any amount paired with 0 is completely completed, therefore the final octet of the speech, or two, could be canceled out leading to a 0.. So by applying the subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 to the address 69.163.177.2, we find that the network address is 69.163.177.0. In most small networks, a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 will work well, larger networks will require a different subnet mask that may have been calculated to provide services to a specific number of network hosts.

Kali Linux Default Preferences

As explained previously, many penetration test engineers, white hat hackers, won’t desire their network to declare their existence on the system the moment the computer links. That is exactly what Kali Linux can do when it’s powered up and link to a community. Care has to be taken when running a penetration test to steer clear of this unnecessary additional communicating by disabling the network before plugging in to the system. With custom supports such as installing into a hard disk, thumb drive, or SD card, then this automated system setup could be altered. An additional way to alter this is by creating a custom reside disc which is going to be configured for manual system setup.

THE BASICS OF NETWORKING IN KALI LINUX

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