THE BASICS OF NETWORKING IN KALI LINUX
Networking can be thought of as a series of electronic roads between computers. These roads can be physical, most commonly copper category 5 or 6 (CAT 5 or CAT 6) cables or fiber optic cables. Wireless networking uses spe-
cial radio transmitters and receivers to conduct the same basic tasks as physical networks. A wired network interface card (NIC) is illustrated in Figure 1, and a wireless module is illustrated in Figure 2.
Regardless of the medium, physical or wireless networking has the samebasic components. First there are two or more devices that will be communicating, for example Adams’s computer will be communicating with Bill’s
computer. To do this they will need the correct communications equipment operating on the correct medium. For this example, Adam will be connecting to the same physical CAT5-based network that Bill is connected to; however,
if the settings are correct Bill could be using a wireless network card and Adam could be using a wired network card as long as the protocols and settings for both are correct. For this to work correctly both Adam and Bill would need to be connecting to the same network segment using a device like a wireless router that would be connecting the different physical media types, wired and wireless.
There are a number of components that make up a modern network and fully explaining networking is far beyond the scope of this book; however, the small network segment that will be explained will be sufficient to
describe how to configure a network card. This small network is only two computers that are being used by Adam and Bill, a wired router connected to a cable modem and the cables that connect everything together (all CAT5 in
this example). The router has an inside Internet protocol (IP) address of 192.168.1.1, which is quite common for small office home office (SOHO) and home networks default configuration. This small router connects to the
Internet through its external connection, using an IP address assigned by the Internet Service Provider that will enable Adam and Bill to surf the web once they correctly configure their network cards. In this example, the router also provides dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP), basic firewall functions, and domain name service (DNS), each of these will be discussed in more detail later. This network is illustrated in Figure 3 and will be the
base network used in all of the following chapters.
The internal interface (or network card) for the router has an IP address of 192.168.1.1, this is what is called a private address as it can’t be used on the Internet. It is fine for the internal network represented by the gray box in Figure 3 as are all of the addresses issued by DHCP, for example the IP address issued to Adam and Bill’s computers. Table 1 lists the common private IP addresses that can be used for internal or private networks, but can’t be used on the Internet.
To access the Internet, the router does a bit of magic called network address translation (NAT) that converts the IP addresses used by Adam and Bill to addresses that can be used on the Internet. This is normally the address that
is issued to the router by the cable Internet provider and will be assigned to the external interface (another network card). If a user was to try and use these addresses on the Internet, without a NATing router, the communication
would fail as Internet routers and other devices reject these private IP addresses.
The router separates these two networks, internal and external, and provides some basic security functions, like a rudimentary firewall. Additionally, Moreover, the router provides a method from their personal network into the public community, nor-mally the world wide web. This speech, known as the default gateway, which is used later after configuring the system cards to your consumer’s 2 computers. A fantastic method to picture the default gateway would be to see it as the only road from a little city. Anyone desiring to leave town would have to understand where this street is. On a network computers (through the network card) need to know where the way out of the local network is, this is the default gateway.
Computers talk to each other in numbers, while people are much better at communicating with words and phrases. For communication to function correctly, networks normally make use of name server or domain name service
(DNS). This book will cover DNS in greater detail later, so only a high-level overview of DNS will be discussed in this chapter. Basically, the name server translates human friendly names (like www.freelinuxbox.org) to an IP address that computers and networking components are better at working with. The DNS, synonymous with name server, provides translation between human friendly and computer friendly addresses. For example, when a computer wants to communicate with another computer, a web server for example, it must first translate the human readable address to a computer friendly address that can be used to route the message. The person would type www.freelinuxbox.org.com in their favorite browser, and the computer would forward this address for resolution to a DNS machine. The DNS would reply with the machine hosting the web pages IP address (188.8.131.52). The user’s computer would then use this IP address to communicate with the Syngress web server and the user could interact with the Syngress web page. Without this service, humans would be required to memorize every website’s unique IP Address. This would mean people would have to remember 184.108.40.206 not syngressc.com. Manual configuration of a network card requires the identification of a DNS or name server.
For pure network magic nothing beats DHCP. Having a computer setup for automatic setup of DHCP, all of the consumer must do is link to a functioning system cable and proceed to work. This can be done while the computer starts communication throughout the system searching to get a DHCP server, simply by sending a broadcast request searching for a DHCP server. The machine responds to the customer and assigns networking settings to the computer. Including an IP address to your computer (well actually only the system card but that’s somewhat from the weeds because of this reason ), the default gateway, name serveror title servers, along with the default subnet mask. Typically, this really is a fantastic approach to configure your own network card however if you’re running a penetration test, using DHCP to configure the network announces to everyone that you’re going into the system, generally not a great thing.
Subnetting is a subject that may confuse a great deal of folks, therefore for the sake of the article for subnetting will simply be clarified as the best way to configure networks at the ideal method to conserve IP addresses. This is carried out by employing a mask which can filter out a number of the computer IP address permitting the networks should be discovered. When employing the mask, regions of the speech are completed and many others stay to enable the computers to the system to be aware of the system they’re on. Any amount paired with 0 is completely completed, therefore the final octet of the speech, or two, could be canceled out leading to a 0.. So by applying the subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 to the address 220.127.116.11, we find that the network address is 18.104.22.168. In most small networks, a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 will work well, larger networks will require a different subnet mask that may have been calculated to provide services to a specific number of network hosts.
Kali Linux Default Preferences
As explained previously, many penetration test engineers, white hat hackers, won’t desire their network to declare their existence on the system the moment the computer links. That is exactly what Kali Linux can do when it’s powered up and link to a community. Care has to be taken when running a penetration test to steer clear of this unnecessary additional communicating by disabling the network before plugging in to the system. With custom supports such as installing into a hard disk, thumb drive, or SD card, then this automated system setup could be altered. An additional way to alter this is by creating a custom reside disc which is going to be configured for manual system setup.
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